Numerous research works in Iran and abroad address the issue of social movements in the 14th SH century. However, it is uncommon to come across writings that examine the relationship between social movements and intellectuals. The issue is about the type of participation, place, and role of intellectuals in the century’s major social movements.
A number of social science studies have also examined the influence of intellectual discourse on social movements in various countries. Examples of such analyses include examinations of the French Revolution and the impact of the opinions and writings of Rousseau, Voltaire, and other prominent Enlightenment authors on this historical event. Another illustration is the influence of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Trotsky, and other intellectuals on the Russian October Revolution. The same question might be asked regarding the Chinese revolution and Mao Zedong’s involvement, or the Cuban revolution and Castro or Che Guevara’s participation. Erst in the last three decades has a portion of academic research shown a change in the interaction between intellectuals and social movements, or, according to Régis Debray, a decline in the influence of visionary and ambitious discourses.
 Winock, Le siècle des Intellectuels. Debray, I. F. [Intellectuel Français], suite et fin, 54.