The following abstract is a translation of an ICCI 2022 conference presentation paper in Persian language.
The impediments facing women in Iran in areas of employment have caused their elimination from the formal job market and have inclined them to informal employment. This situation has caused a surge in gender discrimination against women in employment and has made earning a living more difficult for those from lower economic classes. The current paper is a qualitative study, with data gathered from observations and in-depth interviews with 26 women peddlers on Tehran’s Subway. One of the major problems with these women peddlers is their encounters with authority agents. The research seeks to answer this question: “What are their tactics to handle the authority agents?” The theoretical framework of the paper is based on the theory of Asef Bayat’s “quiet encroachment.” The findings of the study show that women’s tactics to reduce the risk of an encounter with authority agents include: avoidance and reduction of travel in insecure stations (with more agents); avoidance and reduction of entry through the insecure stations; concealing their merchandise; reduction of the amount of their merchandise; pretending to be a commuter; seeking the favor of the authority agents; befriending the authority agents; obedience; escape; collecting the merchandise on display in case of attack by agents, and avoiding the station CCTV as much as possible. Keywords: peddling, women peddlers, quiet encroachment, authority agents, tactics