Women all over the world may, at some point, have had unpleasant experiences which might have caused them physical or mental harm. This study has investigated such experiences, particularly in the city of Tehran, and explored the relationship between unsafe urban spaces and the overall health and well-being of women. Urbanization, while being one of the leading global trends of the 21st century, seems to be having a significant impact on the overall health of people. Due to the changes and modernization in Iran, there is an increasing presence of urban spaces in cities. Tehran, the capital of Iran, is the biggest city in the country and the main destination of migrants because of its several modernistic urban attractions. This phenomenon has many adverse effects on different aspects of the city, such as the loss of green environments, agricultural lands, orchards, increasing air pollution, increasing socioeconomic inequality, and so on.  Women, according to the gender equity perspective, should have equal rights for presence in and use of urban public spaces. Various factors and obstacles decrease women’s participation in urban public spaces, for instance, they suffer from harassment and insecurity in a city on a regular basis and confront it in various situations. 
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 Mohammad Reza Bemaniyan te.al. “Assessment of Factors Affecting the Promotion of Women’s Safety in Urban Environments”.